The Thailand Court system is, generally, divided into three
levels: (1) Court of First Instance, (2) Court of Appeals, and
(3) the Supreme Court. There are also special courts for labor,
tax, juvenile and family matters, bankruptcy, and intellectual
property and international trade litigation.
Complaints must be submitted to the Court in the jurisdiction
where the defendant is domiciled or the jurisdiction where the
claim arose. However, in cases pertaining to immovable property,
the appropriate jurisdiction is that where the immovable property
most cases, an appeal taken from a court of first instance will
go to the Court of Appeals, and then to the Supreme Court. Cases
in some of the specialized courts will go directly to the Supreme
Court. Aside from the District Courts, the court of first instance
consists of a panel of three judges with two judges constituting
a quorum. A panel of three judges sit in the Court of Appeals
and the Supreme Court, but if the case is deemed important,
then the entire Supreme Court may sit.
Thai courts have jurisdiction to make and enforce judgements
over the property of non-residents who commit crimes or are
subject to claims by Thai nationals and those domiciled in Thailand.
Arising from Abroad: Civil cases originating from outside
of the Kingdom require the plaintiff, through a power of attorney
duly notarized and authenticated by a Thai Embassy or Consulate,
appointing someone in the Kingdom of Thailand to prosecute the
matter. The case would then be filed within the Kingdom by an
attorney-at-law who has been appointed by the attorney-in-fact
as set out in the Power of Attorney.